(1) "Administration is as follows:
(a) "enteral administration" means the agent is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or oral mucosa (oral, rectal, or sublingual);
(b) "parenteral administration" means the agent is absorbed intramuscularly, intravenously, intranasally, submucosally, subcutaneously, or intraosseously;
(c) "transdermal administration" means the agent is absorbed through a patch or by iontophoresis through the skin;
(d) "transmucosal administration" means the agent is absorbed across the mucosa (intranasal, rectal, or sublingual); and
(e) "inhalation administration" means a gaseous or volatile agent is introduced into the lungs and absorbed through the gas/blood interface. Because sedation and general anesthesia are a continuum, it is not always possible to predict how an individual patient will respond. Practitioners intending to produce a given level of sedation should be able to diagnose and manage the physiologic consequences (rescue) for patients whose level of sedation becomes deeper than initially intended.
(2) "Deep sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused, but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.
(3) "General anesthesia" means a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required, because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.
(4) "Incremental dosing" means administration of multiple doses of an agent until the desired effect is obtained, not to exceed the maximum recommended dose (MRD).
(5) "Inhalation sedation" means the use of nitrous oxide/oxygen in concentrations of up to 70/30 percent to provide mild relaxation and analgesia. Nitrous oxide/oxygen may produce minimal sedation, moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia when used in combination with a sedative agent or agents. Inhalation sedation may be used in the pediatric or adult populations.
(6) "Maximum recommended dose" (MRD) means maximum Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dose of a drug, as printed in the FDA-approved labeling for unmonitored dose.
(7) "Minimal sedation" means a minimally depressed level of consciousness, produced by a pharmacological method, that retains the patient's ability to independently and continuously maintain an airway and respond normally to tactile stimulation and verbal command. Although cognitive function and coordination may be modestly impaired, ventilatory and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. When the intent is minimal sedation for adults, the appropriate dose of a single enteral drug is no more than the MRD of a drug that can be prescribed for unmonitored home use.
(8) "Moderate sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained. The drugs and/or techniques used for moderate sedation should render the unintended loss of consciousness unlikely. Repeated dosing of an agent before the effects of previous dosing is obtained may result in a greater alteration of the state of consciousness than intended. A patient whose only response is reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not in a state of moderate sedation.
(9) "Supplemental dosing" means a single additional dose of the initial dose of the initial drug necessary for prolonged procedures under minimal sedation. The supplemental dose should not exceed one-half of the initial total dose and should not be administered until the dentist has determined that one clinical half-life of the initial dose has passed. The total aggregate dose must not exceed one and a half times the MRD on the day of administration.
(10) "Titration" is the administration of incremental doses of a drug until a desired effect is obtained.
(11) "Trained healthcare professional" means a person who serves as an anesthesia monitor in a dental office. Such person shall maintain current certification in the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support for Healthcare Providers or its equivalent, shall be trained in monitoring patient vital signs, and shall be competent in the use of monitoring and emergency equipment appropriate for the level of sedation utilized. (The term "competent" as used in these rules means displaying special skill or knowledge derived from training and experience).