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(1) The civics and government content standards for ninth through twelfth grade are that each student will: 

(a) analyze and evaluate the ideas and principles contained in the foundational documents of the United States, and explain how they establish a system of government that has powers, responsibilities, and limits;

(b) analyze the impact of constitutions, laws, treaties and international agreements on the maintenance of domestic and international relationships;

(c) evaluate the impact of international agreements on contemporary world issues;

(d) apply civic virtues and democratic principles when working with others;

(e)  evaluate how citizens and institutions address social and political problems at the local, state, tribal, national, and/or international levels;

(f) evaluate the American governmental system compared to international governmental systems;

(g) explain the foundations and complexity of sovereignty for federally recognized tribes in Montana;

(h) evaluate appropriate deliberative processes in multiple settings;

(i) evaluate government procedures for making decisions at the local, state, national, tribal, and international levels;

(j) analyze historical, contemporary, and emerging means of changing societies, promoting the common good, and protecting rights;

(k) analyze the impact and roles of personal interests and perspectives, market, media and group influences on the application of civic virtues, democratic principles, constitutional rights, and human rights; and

(l) evaluate citizens' and institutions' effectiveness in ensuring civil rights at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels;

(2) The economics content standards for ninth through twelfth grade are that each student will:

(a) analyze how pressures and incentives impact economic choices and their costs and benefits for different groups, including American Indians; 

(b) explain how economic cycles affect personal financial decisions;

(c) analyze the ways in which pressures and incentives influence what is produced and distributed in a market system;

(d) evaluate the extent to which competition among producers, among consumers, and among laborers exists in specific markets;

(e) describe the consequences of competition in specific markets;

(f) evaluate benefits, costs, and possible outcomes of government policies to influence market outcomes;

(g) use current data to explain the influence of changes in spending, production, and the money supply on various economic conditions;

(h) use economic indicators to analyze the current and future state of the economy; and

(i) evaluate the selection of monetary and fiscal policies in a variety of economic conditions.

(3) The geography content standards for ninth through twelfth grade are that each student will:

(a) use geospatial reasoning to create maps to display and explain the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics; 

(b) use geographic data to analyze variations in the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics at multiple scales;

(c) use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their political, cultural, and economic dynamics;

(d) analyze relationships and interactions within and between human and physical systems to explain reciprocal influences that occur among them, including American Indians;

(e) evaluate the impact of human settlement activities on the environmental, political, and cultural characteristics of specific places and regions;

(f) analyze the role of geography on interactions and conflicts between various cultures in Montana, the United States, and the world;

(g) evaluate the influence of long-term climate variability on human migration and settlement patterns, resource use, and land uses at local-to-global scales; and

(h) evaluate the consequences of human-driven and natural catastrophes on global trade, politics, and human migration.

(4) The history content standards for ninth through twelfth grade are that each student will:

(a) analyze how unique circumstances of time, place, and historical contexts shape individuals' lives;

(b) analyze change and continuity in historical eras in US and world history;

(c) identify ways in which people and groups exercise agency in difficult historical, contemporary, and tribal contexts;

(d) analyze multiple, and complex causal factors that have shaped major events in US and world history, including American Indian history;

(e) explain events in relation to both their intended and unintended consequences, including governmental policies impacting American Indians;

(f) distinguish between long-term causes and triggering events in developing a historical argument;

(g) analyze how historical, cultural, social, political, ideological, and economic contexts shape people's perspectives;

(h) analyze the ways in which the perspectives of those writing history shaped the history they produced;

(i) evaluate how historiography is influenced by perspective and available historical sources;

(j) analyze perspectives of American Indians in US history; 

(k) evaluate the limitations, biases, and credibility of various sources, especially regarding misinformation and stereotypes;   

(l) analyze multiple historical sources to pursue further inquiry and investigate additional sources;

(m) integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about past and present people, events, and ideas; and

(n) construct arguments which reflect understanding and analysis of multiple historical sources, perspectives, and contexts.


History: Mont. Const. Art. X, sec. 9, 20-2-114, MCA; IMP, Mont. Const. Art. X, sec. 9, 20-2-121, 20-3-106, 20-7-101, MCA; NEW, 2020 MAR p. 2142, Eff. 7/1/21.

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