(1) The social studies program ensures that successful candidates follow the subject-major/minor program of study or the broadfield major program of study. Subject-major/minor teaching endorsement programs are limited to history, government, economics, geography, psychology, and sociology. The broadfield social studies teaching endorsement shall include a concentration in history and government and additional content chosen from economics, geography, psychology, sociology, Native American studies, or anthropology. The social studies disciplines adhere to a thorough grounding in the basic philosophy, theory, concepts, and skills associated with Montana and national standards.
(2) The social studies endorsement requires that successful candidates:
(a) demonstrate knowledge of the purposes of social studies, how to select content appropriate to those purposes, how to use emerging technology, and how to assess student learning in terms of social studies goals;
(b) demonstrate knowledge of and ability to plan instruction based on state and national social studies curriculum standards;
(c) demonstrate ability to select and integrate the content and methods of investigation of history and the social science disciplines for use in social studies instruction;
(d) demonstrate knowledge of and ability to plan instruction on the history, cultural heritage, and contemporary status of American Indians and tribes in Montana, including an awareness and application of the Montana 7 Essential Understandings; and
(e) demonstrate ability to use a variety of approaches to instruction that are appropriate to the nature of social studies content and goals and to use them in diverse settings with students with diverse backgrounds, interests, and range of abilities.
(3) The economics endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) economic theory;
(b) the basic economic problems confronting societies and the examination of the ways in which economic systems seek to resolve the three basic economic problems of choice (i.e., determining what, how, and for whom to produce) that are created by scarcity and environmental impact;
(c) the basic economic goals for society, including freedom of choice, personal financial literacy, ethical action, efficiency, equity, full employment, price stability, growth, and security;
(d) the nature of comparative economic systems, including:
(i) the organization and importance of the international economic system;
(ii) the distribution of wealth and resources on a global scale;
(iii) the struggle of developing nations to attain economic independence and a better standard of living for their citizens;
(iv) the role of the transnational corporation in changing rules of exchange; and
(v) the influence of political events on the international economic order.
(4) The geography endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) the geographic themes of location (absolute and relative), place (physical and human characteristics), human-environment interaction (relationships within places), movement (of people, goods, and ideas), and regions (how they form and change);
(b) physical geography including solid earth, atmosphere, oceans, landforms, soils, and biogeography;
(c) human geography, including cultural, social, historical, political, and economic concerns; and
(d) the use of maps and other tools of geographical investigation or presentation, including the use of emerging technology, to process information from a spatial perspective.
(5) The government endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) the nature of individual dignity, human rights, sovereignty (popular, tribal, and national), political power, citizenship, and political authority;
(b) American democracy as a form of government based on federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, civil rights and liberties, elected representation, and popular participation;
(c) the organization, powers, and politics of the national, state, tribal, and local units of American government;
(d) the role of public opinion, the press, elections, interest groups, and political leaders in building compromise and policy making;
(e) the nature of international relations and the principles and organizations that are used to mediate multinational conflict and achieve multinational order; and
(f) American democracy as compared and contrasted with other forms of government, political systems, and philosophies throughout history and today.
(6) The history endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) U.S. history, including the history of the many peoples who have contributed to the development of North America;
(b) the history of diverse civilizations throughout the world;
(c) the origin, development, and ramifications of present local, tribal, national, and world affairs;
(d) the skills of chronological thinking, analysis of evidence, and interpretation of the historical record by using appropriate content standards;
(e) the cultural, economic, political, scientific/technological, and social activity of humans in the analysis of contemporary issues and problems;
(f) the history, cultural heritage, political development, and contemporary status of American Indians and tribes in Montana; and
(g) the changing role of culture, ethnicity, gender, class, and identity in human affairs.
(7) The psychology endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) the basic psychological theories including developmental, personality, learning, motivation, cognition, biological/physiological, social behavior, and psychological disorders;
(b) the application of the processes of scientific inquiry and descriptive statistics to questions concerning human behavior;
(c) the behaviors which are most effective in coping with stresses in life, understanding the effects of historical trauma upon cultures, and in improving interpersonal and cross-cultural relationships;
(d) human development in terms of physiological, social, and environmental influences throughout the lifespan; and
(e) the theories and factors which contribute to psychological dysfunction of individuals and families.
(8) The sociology endorsement program requires that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of:
(a) the basic structure and history of the world's dominant and indigenous social systems;
(b) the factors, including the effects of changing communications, which hold groups together or which change and weaken them;
(c) the application of knowledge and techniques to practical problems in the everyday world of individuals, groups, organizations, and government; and
(d) the importance of diversity in society.