(1) Restraints, safety devices or postural supports may only be applied by staff who have received training in their use, as specified below and appropriate to the services provided by the facility.
(2) Staff training shall include, at a minimum, information and demonstration in:
(a) the proper techniques for applying and monitoring restraints, safety devices or postural supports;
(b) skin care appropriate to prevent redness, breakdown and decubiti;
(c) active and passive assisted range of motion to prevent joint contractures;
(d) assessment of blood circulation to prevent obstruction of blood flow and promote adequate circulation to all extremities;
(e) turning and positioning to prevent skin breakdown and keep the lungs clear;
(f) potential risk for residents to become injured or asphyxiated because the resident is entangled in a bed rail or caught between the bed rail and mattress if the mattress or mattress pad is ill-fitted or is out of position;
(g) provision of sufficient bed clothing and covering to maintain a normal body temperature;
(h) provision of additional attention to meet the physical, mental, emotional and social needs of the resident; and
(i) techniques to identify behavioral symptoms that may trigger a resident's need for a restraint or safety device and to determine possible alternatives to their use. These include:
(i) observing the intensity, duration and frequency of the resident's behavior;
(ii) identifying patterns over a period of time and factors that may trigger the behavior; and
(iii) determining if the resident's behavior is:
(A) new or if there is a prior history of the behavior;
(B) the result of mental, emotional, or physical illness;
(C) or a radical departure from the resident's normal personality.
(3) Training described in (2) must meet the following criteria:
(a) training must be provided by a licensed health care professional or a social worker with experience in a health care facility; and
(b) a written description of the content of this training, a notation of the person, agency, organization or institution providing the training, the names of staff receiving the training, and the date of training must be maintained by the facility for two years.
(4) Refresher training for all direct care staff caring for restrained residents and applying restraints, safety devices or postural supports must be provided at least annually or more often as needed. The facility must:
(a) ensure that the refresher training encompasses the techniques described in (2) of this rule; and
(b) for two years after each training session, maintain a record of the refresher training and a description of the content of the training.